Online voting, also known as e-voting, refers to the process of casting and counting votes through electronic means, typically using the internet. It is not yet universally adopted due to concerns surrounding security, privacy, and the integrity of elections.
Nonetheless, several countries have experimented with or implemented online voting systems to varying degrees. Here are a few examples:
Estonia: Estonia is often cited as a pioneer in online voting. It introduced online voting in 2005 and has since used it in national parliamentary elections, European Parliament elections, and local elections. Estonian citizens with a national identification card and an associated PIN can cast their votes securely through an online portal.
Switzerland: Switzerland has also embraced online voting. However, due to security concerns, the Swiss government decided to suspend the use of online voting in federal elections in 2019.
South Korea: South Korea has adopted online voting for specific elections. Since 2013, it has allowed overseas citizens to cast their votes electronically in parliamentary elections.
Canada: In Canada, online voting has been used in various municipal elections. Several cities, such as Halifax, Markham, and Peterborough, have offered online voting as an alternative to traditional voting methods.
United States: Online voting in the United States is limited and largely experimental. Some states have implemented pilot programs or conducted small-scale trials to explore the feasibility of online voting for certain groups, such as military personnel and overseas citizens. However, concerns over security vulnerabilities and the potential for hacking have led to skepticism about widespread adoption.
Many countries are still in the early stages of testing or considering its implementation, while others remain cautious due to the associated risks.